INDIA At A Glance: For TNPSC & All Competitive Exams
- INDIA is one of the oldest civilizations in the world with a kaleidoscopic variety and rich cultural heritage. It has achieved all-round Socio-Economic progress during the last 67 years of its Independence.
- India has become self-sufficient in agricultural production and is now one of the top industrialized countries in the world and one of the few nations to have gone into outer space to conquer nature for the benefit of the people.
- It covers an area of 3,287,590 sq. km (1,269,346 sq miles), extending from the snow-covered Himalayan heights to the tropical rain forests of the south.
- As the 7th largest country in the world, India stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity.
- Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.
- Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends between latitudes 8° 4' and 37° 6' north, longitudes 68° 7' and 97° 25' east and measures about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes.
- It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman & Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.
- The Indian peninsula is separated from mainland Asia by the Himalayas.
- The Country is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south.
Geographic Coordinates: Lying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, the Country extends between 8° 4' and 37° 6' latitudes north of the Equator, and 68° 7' and 97° 25' longitudes east of it.
Indian Standard Time: GMT + 05:30
Area: 3.3 Million sq. km
Telephone Country Code: +91
- Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west;
- China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north;
- Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal.
- Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
7,517 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
The climate of India can broadly be classified as a tropical monsoon one. But, in spite of much of the northern part of India lying beyond the tropical zone, the entire country has a tropical climate marked by relatively high temperatures and dry winters.
There are four seasons:
- Winter (December-February)
- Summer (March-June)
- South-west monsoon season (June-September)
- Post monsoon season (October-November)
The mainland comprises of four regions, namely the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region, and the southern peninsula.
Coal, iron ore, manganese ore, mica, bauxite, petroleum, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, magnesite, limestone, arable land, dolomite, barytes, kaolin, gypsum, apatite, phosphorite, steatite, fluorite, etc.
Monsoon floods, flash floods, earthquakes, droughts, and landslides.
Environment - Current Issues:
Air pollution control, energy conservation, solid waste management, oil and gas conservation, forest conservation, etc.
Environment - International Agreements:
- Rio Declaration on environment and development,
- Cartagena Protocol on biosafety,
- Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on climatic change,
- World Trade Agreement,
- Helsinki Protocol to LRTAP on the reduction of sulphur emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes (Nox Protocol), and
- Geneva Protocol to LRTAP concerning the control of emissions of volatile organic compounds or their transboundary fluxes (VOCs Protocol).
Geography - Note:
India occupies a major portion of the south Asian subcontinent.
India's population, as on 1 March 2011 stood at 1,210,193,422 (623.7 million males and 586.4 million females).
Population Growth Rate:
The average annual exponential growth rate stands at 1.64 per cent during 2001-2011.
The Crude Birth rate was 18.3 in 2009.
The Crude Death rate was 7.3 in 2009.
Life Expectancy Rate:
- 65.8 years (Males);
- 68.1 years (Females) in the period 2006-2011.
940 females per 1000 males according to 2011 census
All the five major racial types
- Caucasian, and
- Negroid find representation among the people of India.
According to the 2001 census, out of the total population of 1,028 million in the Country,
- Hindus constituted the majority with 80.5%,
- Muslims came second at 13.4%, followed by
- Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, and others.
There are 22 different languages that have been recognized by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi is an Official Language. Article 343(3) empowered Parliament to provide by law for continued use of English for official purposes.
According to the provisional results of the 2011 census, the literacy rate in the Country stands at 74.04 per cent, 82.14% for males and 65.46% for females.
Republic of India; Bharat Ganrajya
Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government.
Capital: New Delhi
29 States and 7 Union Territories.
15th August 1947 (From the British Colonial Rule)
The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.
The Constitution of India is the fountain source of the legal system in the Country.
The President of India is the Head of the State, while the Prime Minister is the Head of the Government, and runs office with the support of the Council of Ministers who form the Cabinet Ministry.
The Indian Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of the Parliament.
The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts.
The National Flag is a horizontal Tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. At the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel, which is a representation of the Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath.
- 26th January (Republic Day)
- 15th August (Independence Day)
- 2nd October (Gandhi Jayanti; Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday)
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
- India, also known as Bharat, is a Union of States. It is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government.
- The Republic is governed in terms of the Constitution of India which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November, 1949 and came into force on 26th January, 1950.
- The Constitution provides for a Parliamentary form of government which is federal in structure with certain unitary features.
- The constitutional head of the Executive of the Union is the President.
- As per Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the council of the Parliament of the Union consists of the President and two Houses known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha).
- Article 74(1) of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head to aid and advise the President, who shall exercise his/her functions in accordance to the advice.
- The real executive power is thus vested in the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head.
- Parliament is the supreme legislative body of India.
- The Indian Parliament comprises of the President and the two Houses - Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and Lok Sabha (House of the People).
- The President has the power to summon and prorogue either House of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha.
- The Constitution of India came into force on January 26, 1950.
- The first General Elections under the New Constitution were held during the year 1951-52 and
- The first elected Parliament came into existence in April, 1952,
- The Second Lok Sabha in April, 1957,
- The Third Lok Sabha in April, 1962,
- The Fourth Lok Sabha in March, 1967,
- The Fifth Lok Sabha in March, 1971,
- The Sixth Lok Sabha in March, 1977,
- The Seventh Lok Sabha in January, 1980,
- The Eighth Lok Sabha in December, 1984,
- The Ninth Lok Sabha in December, 1989,
- The Tenth Lok Sabha in June, 1991,
- The Eleventh Lok Sabha in May, 1996,
- The Twelfth Lok Sabha in March, 1998,
- Thirteenth Lok Sabha in October, 1999,
- Fourteenth Lok Sabha in May, 2004,
- Fifteenth Lok Sabha in April, 2009 and the Current and
- Sixteenth Lok Sabha in May 2014 on wards.
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