TNPSC Indian Polity: Important Amendments of Indian Constitution

1951: The First Amendment placed reasonable restrictions on free speech, and created the Ninth Schedule that protects laws placed in it from judicial scrutiny.

1956: The Seventh Amendment paved the way for reorganisation of states along linguistics lines.

1960: The Eight Amendment extended the period of reservation of seats for the SCs, STs and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies till 1970. Since then, it is being extended every decade.

1961: The 12th Amendment led to incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal.

1971: The 26th Amendments led to abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were incorporated into the Indian Republic.

1975: The 35th and 36th Amendments made Sikkim part of the Indian Union.

1975: The 39th Amendment negated the judgment of Allahabad High Court invalidating PM Indira Gandhi’s election to parliament. It placed restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of PM.

1976: 42nd Amendment passed during Emergency curtailed fundamental rights, imposed a set of fundamental duties and added the words ‘secular’ and ‘socialist’ to the Preamble.

1978: The 43rd and 44th Amendments restored civil liberties post-Emergency and removed the Right to Property from the Fundamental Rights.

1985: The 52nd Amendment added 10th schedule to the Constitution i.e. anti defection law. It provides for disqualification of legislators in case of defection from one party to other.

1989: 61st Amendment lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.

1992: 73rd and 74th Amendments provided for direct election to all seats in Panchayats and urban local bodies.

1994: 76th Amendment enabled continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution.

2002: The 86th Amendment provides for Right to Education until the age of fourteen and early childhood care until the age of six.

2006: The 93rd Amendment enables provision of reservation (27%) for OBCs in government as well as private educational institutions.

2014: The 99th Amendment paved the way for appointment and transfer in higher judiciary by creating National Judicial Appointment Commission. It was struck down by the SC in 2015.

2015: The 100th Amendment enabled exchange of certain enclaves with Bangladesh
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