TNPSC History: Tamil Nadu History and Geography Notes
This Article Covers about Tamil Nadu's History and Geography, Agriculture, Tourism, Geology and Mining, Transport and Government which helps those who are preparing for TNPSC and other Competitive Exams.
Part 1: History and Geography
Part 1: History and Geography
- Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Adichanallur, 24 km (15 miles) from Tirunelveli. The Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Dravidian language.The discovery of a Neolithic stone celt, a hand-held axe, with the Indus script on it at Sembian-Kandiyur in Tamil Nadu is, according to Iravatham Mahadevan.
- The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature. Numismatic, archaeological and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about six centuries, from 300 BC to AD 300.
- South India had remained under the hegemony of the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas for centuries. The Pallavas held supremacy from about the second quarter of the fourth century AD. They were the Originators of the famous Dravidian style of temple architecture.
- The last Pallava ruler was Aparajitha Varman in whose reign the later Cholas under Vijalaya Chozhan and Aditya Chozhan asserted themselves by about the 10th century. At the end of the 11th Century, Tamil Nadu was ruled by several dynasties like the Chalukiyas, Cholas and Pandyas. In the two centuries that followed, the imperial Cholas gained paramountcy over South India.
- Muslims gradually strengthened their position, which led to the establishment of the Bahamani Sultanate, by the middle of the 14th century. At the same time, the Vijayanagar Kingdom wuickly consolidated itself and extended its away over the whole of South India and at the close of the century, Vijaya Nager become the supreme power insouth. However, it crumbled at the battle of Thalaikottai (Talikota) in 1564 to the confederate forces of the Deccan Sultans.
- Even during the period of the tumultuous confusion that followed the battle of Thalaikottai, European commercial interest had appeared as rivals in the area of South India. The Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the English came in quick succession and established trading centres known as 'Factories.'
- East India company which had established their factory at Masulipatinam, now in Andhra Pradesh, in 1611 gradually annexed territories by encouraging enmity among the native rulers. Tamil Nadu was on the first of British Settlements in India. the state is the successor to the old Madras Presidency which in 1901 covered the bulk of the southern peninsula. The composite madras State was later reorganized and the prescent Tamil Nadu was formed.
- Tamil Nadu is bound on north Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, on west by Kerala, on east by the Bengal and on south by the India Ocean. Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.
- It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. It also shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka.
- Tamil Nadu is the Eleventh largest state in India by area and the sixth most populous state in India. The state was ranked sixth among states in India according to the Human Development Index in 2011.
- Tamil Nadu is the second largest state economy in India with ₹4789 billion (US$71 billion) in gross domestic product. The state has the highest number (10.56 per cent) of business enterprises and stands second in total employment (9.97 per cent) in India, compared to the population share of about 6 per cent.
- Tamil Nadu was ranked as one of the seven top developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by a panel headed by current RBI governor Raghuram Rajan.
- Its official language is Tamil, which is one of the longest surviving classical languages in the world. Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources, classical arts, classical music, classical literature, Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture, hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Area: 1,30,060 sq km (50,216 sq mi)
Area rank: 11th in India
Population: 7.21 Crore (Census 2011)
Population Rank: 6th in India
Population Density: 550/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
Literacy Rate: 80.33 % (2011 census)
Governor: Konijeti Rosaiah
Chief Minister: J Jayalalithaa (AIADMK)
Legislature: Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly (234 member Unicameral)
High Court: Madras High Court
Official language: Tamil
State symbols of Tamil Nadu
Song: நீராரும் கடலூடுத்த("Invocation to Goddess Tamil")
Animal: Nilgiri Tahr
Bird: Emerald dove
Flower: Gloriosa lily
Tree: Palm tree