TNPSC History: 6th Standard Notes - Ancient Tamil Nadu
6th Standard - Social Science - Ancient Tamil Nadu
Ancient Tamil Nadu
The Nannool author Bavananthi Munnivar describes Tamil Nadu as Venkata Hills in North Cape Comorin in South and the land between these two is Tamil Nadu. During British rule, most of the South India was called Madras Presidency. After Independence, the state which had Tamil as its language was separated. Arignar Annadurai, the then Chief Minster in 1967 named the state as Tamil Nadu.
Tamil Nadu was ruled by the descendants of Chera, Chola, and Pandya who were called Moovendhars during the ancient time. The Southern part of South India was ruled by Pandyas, West by Cheras and North-East by Cholas.
The Prehistoric Tamil Nadu
Before prehistoric period Cape Comorin was a land mass. It was called Kumari Kandam. The river Fahruli ran on this land mass which was eight to ten times bigger than south India, there was civilized people and the efficient kingdom, this would have been the ancient Pandyan Kingdom.
The Three Sangams
The Capital of Thalai Sanagam is Thenmadurai of Pandyas, this place was left over after the tsunami in which Thenmadurai was taken away by the sea. Kapadapuram is the Capital of Second Tamil Sangam, the city also become a prey to tsunami later. Then the Pandyas ruled with Madurai as their capital.
The last and Third Sangam was held in Madurai Muthoor. It was known as Koodal Maanagar as the Pandya Kings patronized the poets and held research on Tamil. It was believed that the Three Sangams helped in the development of Literature and Tamil flourished under the leadership of Pandyan Kings.
The Continent Lemuria
The Conditions were favorable for the growth of living organisms only at Cape Comorin. The Southern part of Cape Comorin there was a big land mass connecting Africa and Australia, which was called Lemuria after the name of the Monkey Lemur. It was believed that human beings evolved from the Lemurs.
The BT and AT was calculated based on the birth year of Thiruvalluvar i.e. 31 B.C. Thiruvalluvar was born 31 years before Christ. This was accepted and announced by the Government of Tamil Nadu.
BT - Before Thiruvalluvar, AT - After Thiruvalluvar
The Sangam Literature
The Sangam Literatures are Pathupattu and Ettuthogai. The poem in these literature were written by Kapilar, Paranar, Avvayyar, Nakkeerar, and and hundreds of poets. Through this Sangam Literarture we can understand the Civilization, customs, culture and Political Life for Tamilians.
Tholkappiyam which was a pride to Tamil Literature originated before third Sangam. Thirukkural which was hailed by all the religions originated during the Sangam age.
Ancient Ports of Tamil Nadu
There are many Ports in Ancient Tamil Nadu. Puhar (Kaveripoompattinam), Korkai, Musiri, Thondi and Vanchi. They had trade contacts with Egypt, Yavanam, Rome, China and other eastern countries. They followed the Barter System.
Physical Divisions of Ancient Tamil Nadu
During the Sangam Period, the the Lands were divided by the poets into five physical divisions. The occupation of the people depended on the region where they lived. The Mountainous Region was called Kurinji. The Forest Region was referred as Mullai. The Coastal Areas was called Neithal. The Sandy Regions which suffered drought were called Palai.
The Social divisions of Ancient Tamil Nadu
The most important duty was the Kings was protecting their subjects. Apart from the Kings there were Chieftains and Patrons who ruled Smaller regions. Conditions were favorable for the poets, Pannar, Koothar, Viraliyar, Traders, Idayars, Uzavars, Maravars to lead a comfortable life. Agriculture was honored as it provided food to all. Next to agriculture weaving was given importance.
The Ancient Three Tamil Kingdoms
The Chera Kingdom
Chera Kingdom included the whole of present Kerala and North-West of Tamil Nadu.The Famous Chera Kings were Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan and Silambu Pugazh Cheran Chenguttuvan reached the Himalayas and hoisted the Chera Flag. Their Capital was Vanchi (Karur). The Chera Ports were Thondi Musiri and their Emblem was Bow and Arrow.
The Chola Kingdom
The Chola Kingdom included present Trichy, Thanjavur, Pudukkottai, Nagapattinam and some parts of South Arcot. The Famous Chola Kings were Karikal Cholan and Killivalavan. Kraikal Cholan ruled over 2000 years ago and conqured Ealam.
He built Kallanai on the banks of river Cauvery with the help of capitives which still in use. He was called Karikal Peruvalathan. Their capital were Uraiyur, and their port was Kaveripoompattinam and their emblem was Tiger. The Famous Kings of Medieval period were Rajaraja Chola and Rajendra Chola. They Conquered not only the North but also Java and Kadaram.
The Pandya Kingdom
The Pandya Kingdom included the places from Kanyakumari to Madurai. The famous Pandya Kings were Mudathirumaran and Thalayalanganathu Cheruvendra Neduncheziyan. The one the Pandyan Neduncheziyan, who played important role in Silappathigaram by saying "Yano Arasan Yanae Kalvan" (I am not King, I am the Culprit) and established truth was also a renowned Pandya King. Their Capital was Madurai, theire Port were Korkai (Tuticorin) and their emblem was Fish.
The Social Life:
There were discrimination according to their occupations. There was sect systems but they were not discriminated according to birth. Untouchability was not in practice. Women had the privillage of choosing their life partners, parents agreed to that. The rituals, raising of holy fire and chanting of mantras were not in vogue.
Women were not treated as per vedas. The Sangam people worshipped the stones erected in memory of the dead soldiers which were known as Hero Stones or Nadukkal and their ancestors. They celebrated harvest festival as Pongal Festival of the Spring season. In the Capital the celebrated Indrevizha. They did not know about the festivals of the Puranas.
Important Questions and Answers
1. The Area that was considered as the most ancient one in the world?
Answer: The Area in the South of Vindhyas
2. The Land mass on the South Kanayakumari during pre-historic period?
Answer: Continent of Kumari
3. The Place were evaluation of Man began?
4. Which year is considered as birth year of Thiruvalluvar?
Answer: Bc 31
5. The City where the second Sangam was held?
6. Which was the organisation where the Tamil poets assembled and did literacy research in Tamil?
7. Who were the ancestors of the people of Cape Comorin.
Answer: Ancient Tamilians
8. In which period the historical period of the Tamil began?
Answer: Sangam Period.
9. Which Grammer book originated from before the Third Sangam?
10. Which was the most important occupation of the Sangam Age?
11. Match the following (Matched)
1. Tholkappiyam - The Book before Tamil Sangam
2. Mullai - The Forest Area
3. Pandiyar Neduncheziyan - Yano Arasan; Yanae Kalvan
4. Heroic Death - Hero Stones
5. Kurinji - Mountainous Region
6. Neithal - Coastal Area