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GENERAL SCIENCE for TNPSC & Other Competitive Exams

GENERAL SCIENCE - LESSON: 01 

(For TNPSC & Other Competitive Exams)


INTRODUCTION
  • Science is the systematic study of the Nature and Behavior of the Material. It is through a scientific approach only that we can analyze and understand the world with a rational perspective. 
  • The nature of which we are and important part, is a complex phenomenon, It is only after having the basic knowledge of science subjects like Physics, Chemistry and Biology that we can understand our environment, our surrounding and even our own existence.
  • General Science makes us aware of the various laws governing the nature and helps us in understanding the way the entire globe works. However, General science is a very broad term and it includes a variety of scientific disciplines associated with the study of their specific areas.
  • Many of the things that we use in a day from brushing our teeth in the morning till we sleep under the fan at night are the Gifts of Science.
PHYSICS
  • Physics is the branch of science that deals with Measurement, Motion, Sound, Light, Electricity, Electronics etc.
CHEMISTRY
  • Chemistry deals with the study of Materials, their Characteristics (Metallic, Non-Metallic, taste, odor, acidic, basic etc.) and uses.
BIOLOGY
  • The study of the Microorganisms, Plants and Animals is called Biology.
BOTANY & ZOOLOGY
  • The branch of Biology that deals with Herbs, Shrubs, Climbers and Trees is called Botany and the Study of Animals is known as Zoology.
THE WORLD OF PLANTS
Food Plants
  • The Vegetables, Cereals, Pulses, Fruits, Oils and Spices are obtained from plants. Food based industries depend on plants. Plants are useful to us in many ways. 
  • They are used in the preparation of food items such as chips, pickle, food powder, jam etc.
Medicinal Plants
  • Plants are used not only as food, but also as Medicines to Cure many Diseases. These medicines are obtained from plants.
  • The plants that have medicinal properties are known as Herbal Plants. Food is Medicine. If we add sufficient plants with medicinal values with our food, we can live healthily without diseases.
The Medicinal Plants Cures Many Diseases
  • Pea Egg Plant (Thuthuvalai) - Cures Cold, & Cough
  • Carry Me Seed (Keezhanelli) - Cures Jaundice
  • Neem (Vembhu) - Germicides, Regulates Body Temperature and Destroys Intestinal Worms.
  • Gooseberry (Nelli) - Cures Mouth Ulcer, Regulates Body Temperature
  • Holy Basil (Thulasi) – Cures, Cold, Cough & Fever
  • Country Borage (Karpuravalli) - Increases Sweating, Cures Cough & Fever
  • Sweet Flag (Vasambu) - Cures Abdominal Diseases
  • Turmeric (Manjal) - Used as Germicide and Cosmetic
  • Veldt Grape (Pirandai) - Increases Appetite, Cures Digestive Problem
  • Ginger (Inji) - Cures Digestive Disorders
  • Pepper (Milagu) - Cures Throat Infection
THE SPICES
  • Spices are obtained from many parts of plants. By adding them to the food, the food gets good smell and color.
  • Spices increase the amount of food eaten and the digestion rate. Many parts of plants such as leaves, stems and flowers are used as spices. 
  • Some spices are also used as medicines. Dry Ginger, Mint and Fenugreek are used as Medicines for Common Cold, Fever and Stomach Ache. Turmeric and Clove are used as Antibiotics and Antiseptics
  • Ginger and Turmeric are the stems of the plant found under the ground. These stems do the function of Food Storage.
  • The Kerala is known as the Spice Garden of India
THE FIBER PLANTS
  • The dress, the jute and the gunny bag we use are the products of Fiber Plants. Fibers are classified based on the parts of the plants from which they are obtained. Long, thin, strong strand obtained from plants is known as fiber.
  • Fibers are obtained from the leaves of Aloevera and Pineapple. Fibres obtained from the outer region of the seed are known as External Fibres. Example: Cotton, Coconut, Silk cotton.
  • Nowadays Jute is cultivated not only for fiber, but also for some other purposes. It is used in the preparation of bio-plastics since it has 85% of cellulose. Bio-plastics are biodegradable.
Plants in Construction
  • Wood is used in building constructions and making furniture. The part of the tree that is used for various construction purposes is called wood. The dark inner region of the stem is called Heartwood and the outer region is called as Sapwood.
  • Sapwood helps to conduct water in plants. Heartwood gives strength and rigidity to the plant. It is stronger than sapwood.
  • Mostly heartwood is not infected by fungus, termite, borers. It is hard and resistant to fungus due to the presence of gum, latex, resin and oil. It is more lustrous and is used for building purposes. Sapwood is infected by fungus and termites.
THE GIFT OF NATURE – PLANTS
  • Herbs, shrubs and trees are inevitable for our life. Plants fulfill the basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter. Forests are necessary for getting rainfall. Trees purify the air.
  • Teak: Construction material, furniture
  • Jack Fruit: Construction material, Fruits
  • Eucalyptus Tree: Oil, paper
  • Mango Tree: construction materials, fruits
  • Silk Cotton Tree: Matchstick, matchbox, toys, bed, pillow
  • Coconut Tree: Thatching construction, tender coconut, coconut
  • Mulberry Tree: Tennis racket and Hockey stick
  • Pine Tree: Railway sleepers, ship building
  • Willow Tree: Sports materials, Cricket bat
  • Babul Bark Tree: (Karuvelam tree) Parts of bullock cart
  • Sandal Tree: Sandal, craft, furniture
THE USEFUL QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
  1. Thickest African tree found in Zimbabwe is Boabab Tree.
  2. Orange Trees yield fruits for about 400 years.
  3. Rafflesia produces the largest flowers. The diameter of the flower is One Meter.
  4. Red Wood Tree doesn't easily Catch Fire
  5. From a Watermelan, 6,00,000 watermelon plants can be produced and from them watermelon weighing 180 Tonne can be obtained.
  6.  Plants with medicinal value are called  Medicinal Plants
  7. The Seed part of the plant used as food - Thoor Dhal 
  8. The Food related industry from the following – Pickle Making
  9. Name the Unripe fruit that we have to be consumed for Blood Purification - Goose Berry      
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